British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

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Contents

Part One

INTRODUCTION

The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland . 4

Direct meaning of the word «monarchy» . 6

The British constitutional monarchy 7

Part Two

HISTORY OF THE MONARCHY

Kings and Queens of England . 9

The Anglo-Saxon Kings 9

The Normans 23

The Angevins . 30

The Plantagenets 33

The Lancastrians 42

The Yorkists . 46

The Tudors . 48

The Stuarts . 58

The Commonwealth Interregnum 63

The Hanoverians 75

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha . 85

The House of Windsor 87

Part Three

THE MONARCHY TODAY

The Queen’s role . 91

Queen’s role in the modern State 91

Queen and Commonwealth . 91

Royal visits 92

The Queen’s working day 92

Ceremonies and pageantry . 92

The Queen’s ceremonial duties . 93

Royal pageantry and traditions 93

Royal succession . 93

The Royal Household 93

Royal Household departments 94

Recruitment . 94

Anniversaries . 95

Royal finances 95

Head of State expenditure 2000-01 95

Sources of funding 96

Financial arrangements of The Prince of Wales 96

Finances of the other members of the Royal Family . 96

Taxation . 97

Royal assets 97

Symbols 98

National anthem . 98

Royal Warrants 99

Bank notes and coinage . 100

Stamps 102

Coats of Arms 103

Great Seal . 104

Flags . 105

Crowns and jewels 105

Transport 105

Cars 106

Carriages 107

The Royal Train . 108

Royal air travel 109

Part Four

THE ROYAL FAMILY

Members of the Royal Family 111

HM The Queen 111

HRH The Duke of Edinburgh . 111

HRH The Prince of Wales and family 112

HRH The Duke of York 112

TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex . 112

HRH Princess Royal . 112

HRH Princess Alice 113

TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester . 113

TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent . 113

TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent 114

HRH Princess Alexandra 114

Memorial Plaque

HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother . 115

HRH The Princess Margaret . 115

Diana, Princess of Wales . 115

Part Five

ART AND RESIDENCES

The Royal Collection 116

About the Royal Collection 116

The Royal Collection Trust 117

Royal Collection Enterprises 117

Publishing 118

Royal Residences . 118

Royal Collection Galleries . 118

Loans 119

The Royal Residences . 119

About the Royal Residences . 119

Buckingham Palace . 120

The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace . 120

The Royal Mews 121

Windsor Castle 121

Frogmore . 122

The Palace of Holyroodhouse 122

Balmoral Castle . 123

Sandringham House 123

St James’s Palace . 124

Kensington Palace . 124

Historic residences 124

Bibliography . 126

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)

Government: The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a Parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, 26 bishops, and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sits for five years unless sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of most of its power in 1911, and now its main function is to revise legislation. In Nov. 1999 hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort to make the body more democratic. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the prime minister.

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