Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English

Страница 7

e.g. So I spent my green years first in East Germany that influenced on me greatly (they say I look like a German, joke), then we moved to live in Siberia where I played an ice hockey, entered the Secondary School and fell in love with British rock music. [4, P.35]

This person was applying for a journalist and tried to show his writing skills.

It does not mean, however, that a person in charge will be much concerned about one’s personality without knowing a way of using it. If a person is starting business correspondence on an important matter, the first thing to do is to consider it all carefully from the other person’s probable viewpoint, and to go on making business in the same way.

These are some of the most frequent problems in the theory of business correspondence which can concern a person who is likely to get involved in a business undertaking.

The structure of contracts and their essential clauses

Contract is a business document presenting an agreement for the delivery of goods, services, etc., approved and signed by both the Buyer (exporter) and the Seller (importer) [5, P.131]. By law contracts are made in writing. When striking a deal, standard contracts are widely used. Standard contracts are not a must. Some articles can be altered and supplemented [10, P.12].

The following items are of the greatest importance in any contract:

- contract No.;

- place and date of signing;

- names of the Sides which signed the contract;

- subject of the contract;

- quality of goods;

- price (per unit and total price);

- destination;

- delivery time;

- requirements for packing and marking;

- payment terms;

- conditions of submission and acceptance of goods;

- transport conditions; warranty conditions and sanctions;

- arbitration conditions;

- force majeure;

- judicial addresses of the Sides;

- signatures of the seller and the buyer.

All appendices form an integral part of contract. Contract is drawn up in accordance with the established form, often on special printed forms filled in with basic information by one-time writing. Sometimes, when a transaction is small in volume, a contract may be concluded by telex [5, P.131].

Now the most significant clauses of contract should be regarded.

The subject-section names the product for sale or purchase. It also indicates the unit of measure employed in foreign trade for specific commodities.

The quality of machines and equipment is to be conformed with the technical specification of the contract. The quality of raw materials and foodstuffs is determined by standards, samples, and description.

The price stated in a contract may be firm, fixed or sliding. Firm prices are not subject to change in the course of the fulfilment of the contract. Fixed price governs in the market on the day of delivery or for a given period. Sliding prices are quoted for machinery and equipment which require a long period of delivery.

There are some kinds of payment. A cheque is a written order to a Bank given and signed by someone who has money deposited there to pay a certain amount mentioned in the cheque to a person named on it. In the place of the cheque system Banks provide an international system of bank transfers. A draft is another order to pay. It is made out by an exporter and presented to the importer. It is also called a bill of exchange. A sight draft is a bill which is paid immediately on presentation. A bill is to be paid at a later date is called a term draft. There are 30-day, 69-, 90- and 120-day drafts. The payment is guaranteed with a letter of credit or a revolving letter of credit.

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