How 'DNA' testing works

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Cost: IJnless executions are dramatically speeded up (unlikely after so many mis­takes), the death penalty will remain far more expensive than life widiout parole. The difference is in the upfront prosecution costs, which are at least four times greater dian in cases where death is not sought. California spends an extra $90 million on its capital cases beyond die nor­mal costs of the system. Even subtracting pro bono defense, the system is no bargain for taxpayers.

Whether you're for or against die deadi penalty, it's hard to argue diat it doesn't need a fresh look. From America's earliest days, when Benjamin Franklin helped de­velop the notion of degrees of culpability for murder, diis country has been willing to re­assess its assumptions about justice. If we're going to keep die deadi penalty, die public seems to be saying, let's be damn sure we're doing it right. DNA testing will help. So will odier fixes. But if, over time, we can't do it right, then we must ask ourselves if it's worth doing at all.

HOW “DNA” TESTING WORKS

The opening DNA is a new era in development of a science and society, it opens new opportunities, which were inaccessible earlier, and is capable to help not only scientist and patient, but also policeman with disclosing a crime. Now already it is impossible to present as five years ago managed without any help of DNA.

Now the laboratory can identify samples found on a place of a crime, with samples suspected, and then to make a conclusion about participation suspected with accuracy on 99 %.

The analysis DNA consists of five stages:

1)Collect

2)Isolate

3)Amplify

4)Segregate

5)Compare , during which is found out, whether the found samples on a place of a crime suspected belong. It is very heavy process, which requires large material inputs, and human forces. But result can’t be valuable.

As the opening DNA has helped sharply to lower a judicial mistake, which were not a rarity, at removal court of a death penalty. Very much often executed the innocent people, which than could not prove the innocence. Now, at use DNA, the probability of a mistake has decreased in 99 times.

Certainly, use DNA very much helps investigation of crimes, but not everyone can it allow. As there are and many opponents, which act against an opportunity of use of the analysis DNA. As at DNA at all achievement has also problems, which should be decided, but that behind technology of the analysis DNA the future, already without disputable.

The dictionary:

DNA – дизоксирибо нуклеиновая кислота (ДНК).

Suspect – подозреваемый.

To collect – собирать.

To isolate – изолировать.

To Amplify – усиливать.

To Segregate – выделять.

To Compare – сравнивать.

Overwhelming – подавляющий.

Innocence – невиновность.

Confession – признание.

Convicted – осужденный.

Death-penalty – смертная казнь.

In­volved – вовлеченный.

Disbarred – отмена запрета, разрешенный.

Jailhouse – тюрьма.

Reinstating – восстановление.

Fixed – установленный.

Governor – губернатор.

Appropriate – соответствующий.

Decision – решение.

Reviewing – рассмотрение.

Apparently – очевидно.

Adequately – соответственно.

To consider – рассматривать.

Misunderstood – неправильно истолкованный.

Prosecutors – обвинители.

Death-row – камера смертников.

Inmates – сожители.

Consequences – последствия.

Notorious murder – печально известное убийство.

Evidence – свидетельсво, очевидность.

Reliable eyewitnesses – надежные свидетели.

Pretrial publicity – гласность до суда.

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