Grammar

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PARTICIPLE I

1.Attribute (Participle I Indefinite Active & Passive).

If we have a participle used as an attribute to a noun (in pre-position), the noun performs the action expressed by the –ing form.(a touching story-a story that can touch, a laughing girl-a girl who is laughing).

Participle I Perfect can be used only as an adverbial modifier & never as an attribute. To express priority an attribute clause is used: The student who has shown the countries of America on the map is going to his seat.

Sometimes the Participle I Indefinite denotes an action referring to no particular time: Taiga is a thick forest stretching to the south of tundra.

2.Predicative (Participle I Indefinite Active).

To be astonishing, to be disappointing, to be exciting, to be humiliating (оскорбительно, унизительно), to be inviting (заманчивый), to be tempting (привлекательный), to be terrifying (ужасный), to be touching.

3.Parenthesis.(Participle I Indefinite Active)

Generally speaking, judging by appearance (words)(судя по внешнему виду), mildly speaking(спокойно), speaking frankly, strictly speaking, saying nothing of, roughly speaking.

4.Adverbial modifier of clause(reason) (PI Indefinite Active,

PI Indefinite Passive;

PI Perfect Active, PI Perfect Passive).

Not knowing the topic well, he got confused.

Being impressed by the duel scene in ”Hamlet”, they were silent on the way home.

Having lost the book, the students couldn’t prepare for the topic.

Having been left alone, the child felt miserable & lonely

5.Adverbial modifier of comparison.

PI Indefinite Act

She shivered with fright as if realizing the danger.

6.Adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances(manner)

Participle Ind Act

I spent the morning on the cliff reading.  

7. Adverbial modifier of time.

PI Ind Act

PI Ind Pas

PI Perf Act

PI Ind Pas

The action expressed by a participle in the function of an adv. mod always refers the to the subject of the whole sentence.

With such verbs as to see, to hear, to notice, to come, to arrive, to seize, to look, to enter, to turn, to close, to open, to cross. PI Ind Act is used to express a prior action when the action expressed by the finite verb closely follows the action expressed by the P: Seeing that it was useless to argue with him, I dropped the subject.

The conjunctions ”when” & “while” are often used with PI Ind Act to express an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb: While making a tour of England, we were impressed by its beauty.

PI Ind of the verb “to be” is not used as an adverbial modifier of time: “Когда я был в Москве»=”When in Moscow”  

tThe functions of participle II in the sentence.

Attribute

PII of transitive verbs corresponds to the Russian страдательное причастие or действительное причастие of some verbs ending in –ся a broken chair (сломанный стул), a newspaper published in Moscow (газета, издаваемая в Москве). PII can be used in post-position & in pre-position (without any accompanying words). He answered through the locked door. (Он ответил через открытую дверь). They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. (Они свернули в небольшую оранжерею, красиво освещённую китайскими фонариками)

PII of intransitive verbs, which denote passing into a new state, corresponds to the Russian действительное причастие or to an adjective. Only in few cases PII of an intransitive verb may be used attributively, mostly PII of the verbs to fade(увядать), to wither(искушать, губить),to retire, to fall/ to vanish(исчезать). Faded leaves (увядшие листья).

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